Optimization of energy consumption of buildings and structures
Automation systems for the engineering infrastructure of civilian buildings allow achieving significant results in optimizing energy consumption without compromising comfort and safety. With a comprehensive approach to automation, savings can range from 25% to 30%.
An integrated approach should also be understood as the creation of a decentralized automation system built on the basis of a single network platform. This solution allows you to combine disparate engineering systems into a single building life support tool. That means to exclude their mutually exclusive modes of operation.The fundamental principle of reducing energy consumption is the fulfillment of two conditions:
DECISIONS THAT WILL ALLOW TO REDUCE THE ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN THE ADMINISTRATIVE BUILDING.
HEATING, VENTILATION, AIR CONDITIONING
Systems that create the necessary climatic conditions in buildings are the main consumers of energy. Heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems account for 60% to 70% of total energy consumption. Which in turn allows you to get maximum savings.
Ventilation with a constant air flow rate provides a constant flow rate, the value of which does not depend on the actual load. As a rule, the flow rate in this case is calculated for the conditions of maximum peak load, and the ventilation equipment always operates in 100% power mode.
The main task of ventilation is to provide the required quality of the air in the working area: its purity and oxygen level. The main factor that affects its quality is people. For rational use of energy, the performance of ventilation units should be adjusted in accordance with the intensity of air pollution in each particular room.
The use of automated systems with VAV-regulators (Variable Air Volume) allows you to create ventilation systems with variable flow. With these solutions, the ventilation and air conditioning performance is regulated individually in each building block, using valves and electronic devices, and depends on the actual load. The volume of air supplied provides the required indicators of air quality. The performance of ventilation units is set according to the needs of the premises they serve.
Air quality sensors continuously measure air quality indicators and, on their basis, VAV-regulators adjust the flow rate in each specific room. At the same time, based on the state of the regulators, with the help of frequency converters, the performance of ventilation units is regulated. The algorithm for controlling ventilation units depends on air quality (occupancy) and is based on the regulation of flow and air quality.
With a decrease in the performance of central air conditioners, in addition to reducing the energy consumption of fans, additional savings are achieved by reducing the performance of air heaters and air coolers in the winter and summer season, respectively.
Calculation of heating and air conditioning systems is carried out to provide the premises with the required comfortable conditions for work or leisure. To maintain the specified (required) comfortable conditions, means of heating and air conditioning systems provide thermomechanical and / or thermoelectric means of temperature control. However, these funds do not take into account the presence of people in the premises.
The use of automation systems with presence sensors and electronic controllers can minimize the cost of heating and cooling the premises by automatically changing the required value (setting) of the comfortable temperature. Changing the required value of the comfortable temperature by 1 degree will provide savings from 2% (when heating) to 10% (when cooling). Such a slight difference between the value of comfortable and economical temperatures will allow you to change the actual temperature in the room within a few minutes and at the same time provide a significant economic effect when there are no people. Automatic transfer of the heating system to night operation allows you to lower the setpoint temperature by 3-4 degrees, which will save 6% to 8% of thermal energy at night.
The calculation of an electric lighting system, like any other engineering system, is performed for maximum load conditions. In the case of the lighting system, we are talking about choosing the number and power of light sources that can provide a standardized indicator of the level of illumination in the complete absence of natural light.
In actual use, the electric lighting system must compensate for the lack of natural light entering the movement through translucent structures. But the level of illumination created by natural light is constantly changing and depends on the time of day, time of year and weather conditions. Accordingly, the luminous flux of the electric lighting system, necessary to compensate for insufficient lighting, should be different if we do not want to waste energy.
The use of automation systems with the function of maintaining constant illumination reduces the energy consumption of electric lighting systems from 30 to 70%. To achieve this, the automated system includes light level sensors and dimmers (dimmers). Light level sensors continuously measure the overall level of illumination created by the light fluxes of natural and artificial light sources at workplaces and with the help of dimmers regulate the power of the electric lighting system.
In addition to the function of maintaining a constant level of illumination, automation systems provide lighting control depending on the presence of people in the premises. In the absence of people in the room, artificial lighting is turned off automatically and the illumination level is not controlled.
For comfort, automatic control functions can be forcibly blocked by users. In this mode, the lighting is controlled manually using traditional keyboard switches.